Maxillary Central And Lateral Incisors
• Root: The root of the central incisor is conical, straight and rarely deformed. Labial surface forms larger arch than the palatal. The root
of the lateral incisor is flattened mesio-distally and taper to a fine point apically, mesial and distal surfaces may be grooved. In most cases there is an apical distal curvature. The root is more palatally placed than that of the central. (Fig. 9-21)
• Alveolar Process: The labial alveolar plate is very thin but it is slightly thicker at the lateral incisor region. Palatally there is a wedge of spongy bone between the lamina propria and the palatal plate
of bone, this is called "Retroalveolar Spongiosa".
• Extraction: Upper straight forceps is used for extraction of these teeth. Rotatory movement with labiopalatal movement are enough to deliver the central
incisor. Primary rotation movement can be done safely as the root is conical. For the lateral incisors primary rotatory movement is contraindicated due to the presence of apical distal curvature.
Root: This tooth has the longest and the strongest root of all the human dentation. The root is triangular in cross section and commonly has an apical distal curvature. The mesial and distal surfaces of the root are broad, flat and
• Alveolar Process: It has the general features of the alveolar process at the region of the central and lateral incisor but the labial plate is much more thinner.
Extraction: Broad bladed upper straight forceps is used for extraction of upper canine. Labial and palatal movement are enough to deliver this tooth. (Fig 9-22)
Maxillary First And Second Premolar
Roots: In 50% of cases the first premolar is birooted and the roots are tapered and curved toward each other. When there is only one root it is usually flattened bucco-lingually and grooved (Fig 9-23). The second premolar, on the
other hand, is single rooted in 80% of cases. The roots of second premolar are flattened bucco-palatally and deeply grooved mesially and distally. The root is more closely related to the floor of the maxillary sinus than the roots of the first premolar. (Fig.
- Alveolar bone: The buccal plate of bone is very thin and composed almost entirely from compact bone. The palatal plate is thicker and contain a retroalveolar spongiosa.
Upper premolar forceps is used For extraction of these teeth. Primary buccal movement followed by palatal movement are enough to extract this teeth. The second premolar is much more easier to extract than the first premolar as it is mostly unirooted.
Maxillary First And Second Molars
• Roots: These two teeth has three roots which are straight and widely divergent. Roots of the second molar are generally shorter and less divergent.
The strongest and the longest of the three roots is the palatal one. In case of the second molar the mesiobuccal root is commonly fused with the palatal.
• Alveolar Process: The alveolar process at the
region of the first molar is reinforced buccally by the malar bone of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. Retroalveolar spongiosa is very little. (Figs 9-25 and 9-26)
• Extraction: Upper molar forceps
is used for extraction of these teeth. Bucco-palatal movements are enough to deliver these teeth but generally the second molar is more easily extracted as the roots are shorter and less divergent than those of the first molar.
• Roots: There is a wide variation in the number and shape of the roots of this tooth. Roots are generally less divergent than the roots of the first and second molars and very commonly the
three roots are fused to form one cone shaped root. (Fig 9-27)
• Alveolar Process: Generally the alveolar process is similar to that in the region of the second molar. Distal to the tooth there is the maxillary
tuberosity. Excessive distal force may result in tuberosity fracture.
• Extraction: Upper molar forceps is used for extraction of this tooth. Bayonet forceps may be used to aid in the accessibility. Bucco-palatal
movement are enough to deliver this tooth.
Mandibular Incisors And Canine
• Roots: The root of the central and lateral mandibular incisors is straight, taper apically, flattened
bucco-lingually and grooved on both the mesial and distal surfaces. The root of the central incisor is shorter than that of the lateral. The root of the canine is longer than that of the incisors, flattened bucco-lingually and occasionally shows apical bifurcation.
• Alveolar Process: Both buccal and lingual plates are very thin and devoid of spongy bone which is only found in the interdental bone. (Fig. 9-28)
Lower incisor forceps is used for extraction of these teeth. Buccal and lingual movements are enough to deliver these teeth. Primary rotatory movement should be avoided as the roots are flattened labio-lingually. Greater force is needed to extract the canine.
• Roots: The root of the first premolar is oval in cross section and slightly flattened bucco-lingually, while that of the second premolar is longer, more straight
and more clyndrical. (Fig 9-29)
• Alveolar Process: Crowns of the premolars inclined lingually and the sockets are more buccally placed. The outer cortical plate is thinner than the lingual cortical plate.
The mental foramen lies near there apices. (Fig 9-29)
• Extraction: As the crowns of the premolars are bulky, the lower premolar forceps have curved blades to accommodate the crown. Buccolingual movement
with secondary rotation is used to extract these teeth. Primary rotation can be used with the second premolar as it has a conical straight clyndrical root.
Mandibular First And Second Molar
Each of these two teeth has two roots one mesial and one distal. Roots are broad, flattened bucco-lingually and often curved distally. Those of the second molar are somewhat smaller and more straight. (Figs 9-30 and 9-31)
Alveolar Process: At the first molar region the alveolar process has the same general features as at the premolar region. At the second molar region the buccal plate of bone is reinforced by the external oblique ridge and is thicker than the lingual
plate. (Fig. 9-31)
• Extraction: Bucco- lingual movement using lower molar forceps is enough to deliver these teeth. In case of second molar the initial movement is lingually as the lingual cortical plate is thinner
than the buccal.
Mandibular Third Molar
• Roots: This tooth shows a wide variation in size, shape, number and location of its roots.
• Alveolar Process:
Similar to that at the second molar region but the buccal plate is much thicker than the lingual.
• Extraction: Normal lower third molars are usually easily extracted with a lingo-buccal movement using lower molar
forceps. The initial movement is toward the lingual side as the buccal plate of bone, being reinforced by the external oblique ridge, is much thicker than the lingual plate. (Fig. 9-32)